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What are Gagne's Nine Instructional Events?

Robert Gagne is one of the best known experts on instructional design, and is often referenced. His classic book "Principles of Instructional Design" is considered the Bible on the subject.

Gagne formulated 9 instructional events. This model is not a prescription for the steps to follow when designing instruction, but a model that describes what one has to provide in order for learning to take place.

The link to instructional design is obvious. When you design instruction, you need to ensure that each of the components (the nine instructional events) is accounted for in the training, or learning procedures.

Gagne's steps are as follows:

1. Gaining attention (reception)
2. Informing learners of the objectives (expectancy)
3. Stimulating recall of prior learning (retrieval)
4. Presenting the stimulus (selective perception)
5. Providing learning guidance (semantic encoding)
6. Eliciting performance (responding)
7.Providing feed back ( reinforcement)
8. Assessing performance (retrieval)
9. Enhancing retention and transfer (generalisation)

So, when designing, one has to include components to gain attention, to inform learners of the objectives and so on. At least according to Gagne's model.

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