Top : Special Merit On Training and Learning : How People Learn - Book:

n amazing summary of research on how people learn, and the implications for education and helping others learn. The complete title is: How People Learn: Brain, Mind, Experience, and School: Expanded Edition written by Committee on Developments in the Science of Learning with additional material from the Committee on Learning Research and Educational Practice, National Research Council

Introduction: From Speculation To Science (Introduction)n By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Revolution in the study of the mind that has occurred in the last decades has important implications for education... a new theory of learning is coming into focus that leads to very different approaches to the design of curriculum, teaching, and assessment ... the growth of interdisciplinary inquiries and new kinds of scientific collaborations have begun to make the path from basic research to educational practice somewhat more visible, if not yet easy to travel. Thirty years ago, educators paid little attention to the work of cognitive scientists, ... Today, cognitive researchers are spending more time working with teachers, testing and refining their theories. Hits: 132 )

Teacher Learning (Chapter 8) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
The findings from research on learning suggest roles for teachers that differ from their roles in the past. If teachers are to prepare an ever more diverse group of students for much more challenging work—for framing problems; finding, integrating and synthesizing information; creating new solutions; learning on their own; and working cooperatively—they will need substantially more knowledge and radically different skills than most now have and most schools of education now develop. This chapter considers the kinds of learning opportunities available to teachers Hits: 118 )

How Children Learn (Chapter 4) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Children differ from adult learners in many ways, but there are also surprising commonalities across learners of all ages. In this chapter we provide some insights into children as learners. A study of young children fulfills two purposes: it illustrates the strengths and weaknesses of the learners who populate the nation’s schools, and it offers a window into the development of learning that cannot be seen if one considers only well-established learning patterns and expertise. Hits: 96 )

Design of Learning Environments (Chapter 6) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
In this chapter we discuss implications of new knowledge about learning for the design of learning environments. Learning theory does not provide a simple recipe for designing effective learning environments; similarly, physics constrains but does not dictate how to build a bridge (e.g., Simon, 1969). Nevertheless, new developments in the science of learning raise important questions about the design of learning environments—questions that suggest the value of rethinking what is taught, how it is taught, and how it is assessed. The focus in this chapter is on general characteristics of learning environments that need to be examined in light of new developments in the science of learning Hits: 95 )

Effective Teaching: Examples in History, Mathematics, and Science (Chapter 7) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
The preceding chapter explored implications of research on learning for general issues relevant to the design of effective learning environments. We now move to a more detailed exploration of teaching and learning in three disciplines: history, mathematics, and science. We chose these three areas in order to focus on the similarities and differences of disciplines that use different methods of inquiry and analysis. A major goal of our discussion is to explore the knowledge required to teach effectively in a diversity of disciplines Hits: 78 )

Learning and Transfer (Chapter 3) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
rocesses of learning and the transfer of learning are central to understanding how people develop important competencies. Learning is important because no one is born with the ability to function competently as an adult in society. It is especially important to understand the kinds of learning experiences that lead to transfer, defined as the ability to extend what has been learned in one context to new contexts (e.g., Byrnes, 1996:74). Hits: 206 )

How Experts Differ From Novices (Chapter 2) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
his chapter illustrates key scientific findings that have come from the study of people who have developed expertise in areas such as chess, physics, mathematics, electronics, and history. We discuss these examples not because all school children are expected to become experts in these or any other areas, but because the study of expertise shows what the results of successful learning look like. In later chapters we explore what is known about processes of learning that can eventually lead to the development of expertise. Hits: 124 )

Conclusions (Chapter 10) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
A scientific understanding of learning includes understanding about learning processes, learning environments, teaching, sociocultural processes, and the many other factors that contribute to learning. Research on all of these topics, both in the field and in laboratories, provides the fundamental knowledge base for understanding and implementing changes in education. Hits: 111 )

Socially Induced Affect (Chapter 10) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
Socially induced affect refers to an emotional experience in one person that is induced by someone else's affect, that person's observable emotions or feelings. This definition implies two parties—a person directly showing affect (the model) and a person observing the model and experiencing emotion as a consequence of the affect of the model. For example, a soldier's distress due to the loss of a loved one induces feelings of distress in his or her team unit members.1 In this case, the soldier is the model and the team members are the observers. The transfer of feelings from model to observer is incidental in the sense that it is caused not by an intended action of a person, but only by the presence of the other.2Identified originally by researchers working on problems of social facilitation (e.g., Zajonc, 1965), this transmission of affect from one person to another does not depend on the relationship that may exist between them; it occurs between strangers as well as between friends Hits: 160 )

Mind and Brain (Chapter 5) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Inn considering which findings from brain research are relevant to human learning or, by extension, to education, one must be careful to avoid adopting faddish concepts.. Among these is the concept that the left and right hemispheres of the brain should be taught separately to maximize the effectiveness of learning. Another is the notion that the brain grows in holistic “spurts,” ...there is evidence that brain regions develop asynchronously, although any specific educational implications of this remain to be determined. Another widely held misconception is that people use only 20 percent of their brains—with different percentage figures in different incarnations Hits: 90 )

Technology To Support Learning (Chapter 9) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
Attempts to use computer technologies to enhance learning began with the efforts of pioneers such as Atkinson and Suppes (e.g., Atkinson, 1968; Suppes and Morningstar, 1968). The presence of computer technology in schools has increased dramatically since that time, and predictions are that this trend will continue to accelerate. What is now known about learning provides important guidelines for uses of technology that can help students and teachers develop the competencies needed for the twenty-first century Hits: 84 )

Next Steps For Education and Learning Research (Chapter 11) By Commission on Behavioral and Social Sciences and Education
In this final chapter the authors take a look at where further research on learning and education needs to go in the future. Hits: 155 )

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