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Top : Special Merit On Training and Learning : Learning Remembering Believing - Enhancing Human Performance:

Learning, Remembering, Believing offers an understanding of human learning that will be useful to training specialists, psychologists, educators, managers, and individuals interested in all dimensions of human performance. Can such techniques as sleep learning and hypnosis improve performance? Do we sometimes confuse familiarity with mastery? Can we learn without making mistakes? These questions apply in the classroom, in the military, and on the assembly line. Learning, Remembering, Believing addresses these and other key issues in learning and performance. The volume presents leading-edge theories and findings from a wide range of research settings: from pilots learning to fly to children learning about physics by throwing beanbags. Common folklore is explored, and promising research directions are identified.

Training in Teams (Chapter 7) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
Training is instruction aimed at procedural knowledge and proficiency, at knowing how to execute the procedures necessary to do a job. It can be distinguished from declarative knowledge, which is knowledge of facts or static information. Training programs have three general goals: successful training, transfer to the work situation (generalization), and long-term use on the job of what was learned (maintenance). Training can be structured for trainees to learn individually (either in competition with peers or on their own) or in teams. Training can focus on individuals who are selected from their job situations (or from a general population of potential job applicants), assigned to training teams and given training, and then returned to their job situations (where the trainees work alone or as part of a team, which may be nested in a network of teams). Or training can focus on cohort, intact teams that are given training as a team at a training site and then returned to the job site. Hits: 428 )

Introduction and Background To The Book (Chapter 1) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
Chapter 1 describes the topics undertaken in this third phase of the committee's work and the relationships between these topics and earlier work done by the committee. It also presents the issues addressed in this book in light of broad questions in human learning and performance Hits: 341 )

Self-Confidence and Performance (Chapter 8) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
Self-confidence is considered one of the most influential motivators and regulators of behavior in people's everyday lives (Bandura, 1986). A growing body of evidence suggests that one's perception of ability or self-confidence is the central mediating construct of achievement strivings (e.g., Bandura, 1977; Ericsson et al., 1993; Harter, 1978; Kuhl, 1992; Nicholls, 1984). Ericsson and his colleagues have taken the position that the major influence in the acquisition of expert performance is the confidence and motivation to persist in deliberate practice for a minimum of 10 years. Self-confidence is not a motivational perspective by itself. It is a judgment about capabilities for accomplishment of some goal, and, therefore, must be considered within a broader conceptualization of motivation that provides the goal context. Hits: 346 )

Book Summary and Key Findings (Chapter 2) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A Bjork
This chapter presents the key findings and conclusions of our work, organized into four categories, as is the book: learning and remembering, learning and performing in teams, mental and emotional states, and new directions. Together, the various lines of research covered in this volume reveal both the complexity of the problems involved in enhancing human performance and some approaches that can improve performance of both individuals and teams. Hits: 365 )

Transfer: Training For Performance (Chapter 3) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A Bjork
Probably the most critical issue in any type of learning is how well the learning transfers from one situation to another, particularly to the actual performance of a task. Although there is a broad consensus that transfer is an important aspect of learning, training, and performance, it is not always clear what is meant by transfer or how to achieve it. In this chapter we focus particularly on situations in which there is some period of training prior to on-the-job execution of a task. We focus exclusively on individuals in the training context. Hits: 457 )

Though Suppression (Chapter 11) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
People often try to control their thoughts in the hope that they will therefore be able to control their emotions, behaviors, or performances. It is clear from everyday life that the control of mental activity meets with some success: people can sometimes concentrate or study at will; they can sometimes eliminate bothersome worries from mind; they can sometimes relax, sometimes get aroused, sometimes get in a better mood; they may even seem to reduce their thoughts of food during a diet or of cigarettes while trying to quit smoking. And people who are grieving over a loss sometimes conclude that their eventual recovery was the result of putting the loss out of mind. Within a certain range of everyday uses, then, people can exercise some mental control. But in terms of the overall topic of enhancing human performance, the key issues for this chapter are research and theory on why people suppress thoughts, how effective thought suppression may be, what later consequences may result from it, and what alternatives exist that may be more effective in the pursuit of freedom from unwanted thoughts. Hits: 308 )

Illusions of Comprehension, Competence, and Remembering (Chapter 4) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
People's performances as individuals, and their contributions as members of groups, depend not only on their actual competence, but also on their assessment of that competence. The reading people take of their own state of knowledge or level of skill determines how they allocate their time and energy and the influence they have on others. Many things depend on people's subjective assessment of what they know and do not know: whether they volunteer for certain roles or tasks, whether they seek further practice or instruction, and whether they instill confidence in others, as well as the answers they give to questions from superiors and subordinates and the affect they induce in others by facial expressions and body language (see Chapter 10). Recent evidence suggests, however, that under certain conditions, people's assessments of what they know or remember can be seriously flawed, particularly when they use one index, such as familiarity, recognition, or fluency, to predict something else, such as unaided recall or production. Hits: 326 )

The Performance and Development of Teams (Chapter 6) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
The focus of this (and the next) chapter is on teams, which can be regarded as a type of small group. Although the terms "team" and "group" are often used interchangeably (even within the same study), it is useful to distinguish between these concepts to provide the boundaries for the review in this chapter. Our implicit working definition of teams is not so broad as to encompass all kinds of small groups, nor so narrow as to exclude important insights from the literature on groups. In distinguishing between groups and teams, Hare (1992) notes that "group" is the more general term and refers to a set of individuals who have some common characteristic—without actually interacting with one another. "Team" is more specific term: joint action is implied, with sports teams being a very visible example. Dyer (1987:24-25) defines a team as "a collection of people who must collaborate, to some degree, to achieve common goals.'' Hits: 353 )

EPILOGUE - Institutional Impediments to Effective Training By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
The role of organizational values, attitudes, and structures in enhancing or impeding individual and team performance was not on the committee's agenda, nor were the committee members chosen for their expertise in that domain. Similarly, neither of the two previous books of the committee dealt with this topic. Yet, after almost a decade of work on issues of performance, we are struck by the key role of the organizational context in which performance occurs. This epilogue is a product of the individual and collective experiences of committee members, past and present, during more than two dozen site visits. What we have encountered repeatedly during such site visits is most curious: an openness to changes that might improve individual or team performance coupled with institutional and organizational reasons why those changes cannot be implemented. We have gotten this message—to a greater or lesser extent—from people in a wide range of military, commercial, governmental, and educational settings. Hits: 450 )

Altering States of Consciousness (Chapter 9) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
Consciousness can be characterized as a state of mental alertness and awareness. Conscious people experience concurrent, retrospective, or prospective awareness of events in their environment—an awareness that exists even in the absence of their ability to report it to others. Consciousness can also be characterized as the experience of voluntariness. People experience themselves as deliberately focusing attention on one object or idea rather than another and choosing among them to respond to environmental demands or to achieve personal goals—goals of which they are aware. Hits: 353 )

Cooperative Learning - Where Learning and Teams Meet (Chapter 5) By Daniel Druckman and Robert A. Bjork
This chapter explores some of the boundaries of that assumption by examining adult cooperative learning in light of the general literature. We begin with a description of the prototypical elements of cooperative learning and then use that description to guide our review of the theories and research and their limitations. We then consider in detail the research on cooperative learning in adult populations and its implications for future research and implementation. In general, this chapter focuses on studies that compare cooperative and individual learning on the basis of dependent measures of individual achievement Hits: 318 )

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